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(by Vicki Smith, NavyTimes.com) MORGANTOWN, W.Va. – Frank Buckles, who lied about his age to get into uniform during World War I and lived to be the last surviving U.S. veteran of that war, has died. He was 110.
Buckles, who also survived being a civilian POW in the Philippines in World War II, died peacefully of natural causes early Sunday at his home in Charles Town, biographer and family spokesman David DeJonge said in a statement. Buckles turned 110 on Feb. 1 and had been advocating for a national memorial honoring veterans of the Great War in Washington, D.C.
When asked in February 2008 how it felt to be the last of his kind, he said simply, “I realized that somebody had to be, and it was me.” And he told The Associated Press he would have done it all over again, “without a doubt.”
On Nov. 11, 2008, the 90th anniversary of the end of the war, Buckles attended a ceremony at the grave of World War I Gen. John Pershing in Arlington National Cemetery.
“I can see what they’re honoring, the veterans of World War I,” he told CNN.
He was back in Washington a year later to endorse a proposal to rededicate the existing World War I memorial on the National Mall as the official National World War I Memorial. He told a Senate panel it was “an excellent idea.” The memorial was originally built to honor District of Columbia’s war dead.
Born in Missouri in 1901 and raised in Oklahoma, Buckles visited a string of military recruiters after the United States entered the “war to end all wars” in April 1917. He was repeatedly rejected before convincing an Army captain he was 18. He was 16½.
“A boy of [that age], he’s not afraid of anything. He wants to get in there,” Buckles said.
Details for services and arrangements will be announced later this week. The family asks that donations be made to the National World War One Legacy Project. The project is managed by the nonprofit Survivor Quest and will educate students about Buckles and WWI through a documentary and traveling educational exhibition.
More than 4.7 million people joined the U.S. military from 1917-18. As of spring 2007, only three were still alive, according to a tally by the Department of Veterans Affairs: Buckles, J. Russell Coffey of Ohio and Harry Richard Landis of Florida.
The dwindling roster prompted a flurry of public interest, and Buckles went to Washington in May 2007 to serve as grand marshal of the national Memorial Day parade.
Coffey died Dec. 20, 2007, at age 109, while Landis died Feb. 4, 2008, at 108. Unlike Buckles, those two men were still in basic training in the United States when the war ended and did not make it overseas.
The last known Canadian veteran of the war, John Babcock of Spokane, Wash., died in February 2010.
There are no French or German veterans of the war left alive.
Buckles served in England and France, working mainly as a driver and a warehouse clerk. The fact he did not see combat didn’t diminish his service, he said: “Didn’t I make every effort?” An eager student of culture and language, he used his off-duty hours to learn German, visit cathedrals, museums and tombs, and bicycle in the French countryside.
After Armistice Day, Buckles helped return prisoners of war to Germany. He returned to the United States in January 1920.
Buckles returned to Oklahoma for a while, then moved to Canada, where he worked a series of jobs before heading for New York City. There, he again took advantage of free museums, worked out at the YMCA, and landed jobs in banking and advertising.
But it was the shipping industry that suited him best, and he worked around the world for the White Star Line Steamship Co. and W.R. Grace & Co.
In 1941, while on business in the Philippines, Buckles was captured by the Japanese. He spent 3½ years in prison camps.
“I was never actually looking for adventure,” Buckles once said. “It just came to me.”
He married in 1946 and moved to his farm in West Virginia’s Eastern Panhandle in 1954, where he and wife Audrey raised their daughter, Susannah Flanagan. Audrey Buckles died in 1999.
In spring 2007, Buckles told AP of the trouble he went through to get into the military.
“I went to the state fair up in Wichita, Kansas, and while there, went to the recruiting station for the Marine Corps,” he said. “The nice Marine sergeant said I was too young when I gave my age as 18, said I had to be 21.”
Buckles returned a week later.
“I went back to the recruiting sergeant, and this time I was 21,” he said with a grin. “I passed the inspection … but he told me I just wasn’t heavy enough.”
Then he tried the Navy, whose recruiter told Buckles he was flat-footed.
Buckles wouldn’t quit. In Oklahoma City, an Army captain demanded a birth certificate.
“I told him birth certificates were not made in Missouri when I was born, that the record was in a family Bible. I said, ‘You don’t want me to bring the family Bible down, do you?’ ” Buckles said with a laugh. “He said, ‘OK, we’ll take you.’ “
He enlisted Aug. 14, 1917, serial number 15577.
Associated Press. Reprinted here for educational purposes only. May not be reproduced on other websites without permission from NavyTimes.com. Visit the website at navytimes.com.
1. How old was Frank Buckles when he enlisted in the army during WWI?
2. How was Mr. Buckles able to enlist when he was underage? Be specific.
3. The minimum age for enlistment in the United States Military today is 17 (with parental consent) and 18 (without parental consent). Why couldn’t an underage person get into the military today?
4. Why did Mr. Buckles spend over 3 years in POW camps during WWII?
5. How would you describe Mr. Buckles’ efforts to enter the military during WWI?
6. When explaining his determination to enlist, Mr. Buckles stated “A boy of [that age], he’s not afraid of anything. He wants to get in there.” Do you think the same can be said for young men today? Explain your answer.
World War I:
- World War I (WWI) or First World War (called at the time the Great War) was a major war centred on Europe that began in the summer of 1914.
- The fighting ended in November 1918.
- This conflict involved all of the world’s great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (centred around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers.
- More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.
- More than 9 million combatants were killed, due largely to great technological advances in firepower without corresponding advances in mobility.
- It was the second deadliest conflict in Western history. (from wikipedia)
For links to WWI websites, go to theworldwar.org/s/110/new/index.aspx.
Unlike WWII, the Korean War and the Vietnam War, there is no national memorial to World War I in Washington DC. The DC War Memorial, on the National Mall in Washington DC is a memorial to the 499 residents of the District of Columbia who gave their lives in that war. In 2008, Frank Buckles issued a call for the restoration and re-dedication of the D.C. memorial as a National and District of Columbia World War I Memorial.
Visit the WWI Memorial Foundation website at wwimemorial.org.
Read a Nov. 2010 commentary on Frank Buckles at studentnewsdaily.com/commentary/serving-those-who-served.
Watch a 2008 interview with Mr. Buckles below:
Watch a USAHEC (United States Army Heritage and Education Center) video on Frank Buckles below (with a 1988 interview with Mr. Buckles):
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