GERMANY – Chancellor joins survivors, U.S. vets to mark Dachau liberation
DACHAU — Survivors and liberators alike recalled on Sunday the horror of the Dachau concentration camp and the overwhelming relief of its liberation 70 years ago. German Chancellor Angela Merkel pledged to keep alive the memory of Nazi crimes and give no quarter to present-day discrimination or anti-Semitism.
Dachau, near Munich, was the first concentration camp the Nazis set up – a few weeks after Adolf Hitler took power in 1933. Before it was liberated by U.S. troops on April 29, 1945, more than 200,000 people from across Europe were held there and over 40,000 prisoners died.
“When we entered the camp exactly 70 years ago, it was a terrible shock to see how much you, the survivors, had suffered from starvation, disease, brutality and freezing conditions,” Alan Lukens, who entered Dachau as a U.S. army private in 1945, said at the anniversary ceremony at the former camp.
“But we will never forget your excitement and ours as were entered the camp and were overwhelmed by you, as you hugged us and brought out a hand-sewn American flag which you had hidden for the occasion,” said Lukens, who later became a U.S. diplomat.
Alongside the joy, he remembered that “SS snipers, after hanging out white surrender flags, shot several American GIs as we entered the camp.”
Former prisoner Jean Samuel remembered Dachau’s liberation as “the most beautiful day of my life.” He described inmates from many nations welcoming the American liberators at the camp’s assembly ground. “An immense crowd acclaimed them, and by some sort of magic the flags of all the countries fluttered in the wind,” Samuel said. He recalled that, after showering and being de-loused, “I felt like a living being again.”
Returning to France at age 21, Samuel said he wanted to forget his experience and get on with his life. “I put Dachau in a corner of my memory,” he said. After retiring, however, he decided to speak out as “a witness of the unspeakable” and fulfill a duty to keep the memories of what happened at Dachau alive.
…Chancellor Merkel thanked survivors for sharing memories of suffering that is “beyond our imagination,” which she said help young people today “connect naked numbers and data with faces, names and individual lives.” And she stressed the importance of ensuring that today’s youth do not turn to extremism.
All in Germany must “make unmistakably clear that Jewish life is part of our identity; that discrimination, marginalization and anti-Semitism can have no place here, that they must be fought with determination and the full force of legal means,” she said.
Abba Naor, a Lithuanian-born former Dachau prisoner who now lives in Israel, was flanked by two of his great-grandchildren as he spoke at Sunday’s ceremony. “I hope that they and all the children in this world never have to experience such crimes,” Naor said.
He recalled an SS guard ordering the killing of a [baby] and reports that some SS commanders were “loving fathers who played with their children after they had driven thousands into the gas chambers.”
“If you think the Nazis were inhuman, then you’re wrong,” he said. “They were humans like you and me. And that is what is so terrible.”
CHINA – China shocks world by genetically engineering human embryos
In a world’s first, Chinese researchers at the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou confirmed they had engineered the DNA of human embryos (a practice banned in Europe) to modify the gene responsible for the fatal blood disorder thalassemia.
The team, led by Junjiu Huang attempted to head off fears of eugenics by claiming the embryos were ‘non-viable’ and could never have become babies.
But critics warned that China was becoming the ‘Wild West’ of genetic research saying it was the first step towards designer children and called for a worldwide ban on the practice.
The work was reported in the journal Protein and Cell after the prestigious science journals Nature and Science refused to publish the study on ethical grounds.
“This news emphasizes the need for an immediate global ban on the creation of GM designer babies,” said Human Genetics Alert Director, Dr. David King. “It is critical that we avoid a eugenic future in which the rich can buy themselves a baby with built-in genetic advantages.”
“It is entirely unnecessary since there are already many ethical ways to avoid thalassemia. This research is a classic example of scientific careerism – assuring one’s place in the history books even though the research is unnecessary and unethical.”
The team has used a gene-editing technique known as CRISPR/Cas9 which was discovered by scientists at MIT.
It works by capitalizing on the fact that bacteria attack viruses by snipping away part of their genetic code, effectively dismembering the virus. The CRISPR technique uses a bacterially derived protein to cut-away a particular gene, which is then replaced or repaired by another molecule introduced at the same time.
The technique has been used in adult cells and animal models but never in human embryos.
Advocates of gene editing say that it could eradicate devastating inherited disease. But others are worried that it crosses an ethical line, allowing children to be genetically engineered. And because the genetic changes are happening to embryos the changes will be passed down to future generations.
…Huang said he had abandoned the current project to go back to working out how to minimize the unexpected mutations in adults cells and animals.
However at least four groups in China are believed to be currently working on genetically modifying human embryos.
NORTH KOREA – North Korea’s nuclear arsenal could be twice as big as earlier estimates
BEIJING AND WASH. D.C. – China’s top nuclear experts have increased their estimates of North Korea’s nuclear weapons production well beyond most previous U.S. figures, suggesting Pyongyang can make enough warheads to threaten regional security for the U.S. and its allies.
The latest Chinese estimates, relayed in a closed-door meeting with U.S. nuclear specialists, showed that North Korea may already have 20 warheads, as well as the capability of producing enough weapons-grade uranium to double its arsenal by next year, according to people briefed on the matter.
A well-stocked nuclear armory in North Korea ramps up security fears in Japan and South Korea, neighboring U.S. allies that could seek their own nuclear weapons in defense. Washington has mutual defense treaties with Seoul and Tokyo, which mean an attack on South Korea or Japan is regarded as an attack on the U.S.
“I’m concerned that by 20, they actually have a nuclear arsenal,” said Siegfried Hecker, a Stanford University professor and former head of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, who attended the closed-door meeting in February. “The more they believe they have a fully functional nuclear arsenal and deterrent, the more difficult it’s going to be to walk them back from that.”
Chinese experts now believe North Korea has a greater domestic capacity to enrich uranium than previously thought, Mr. Hecker said. The Chinese estimates reflect growing concern in Beijing over North Korea’s weapons program and what they see as U.S. inaction while President Barack Obama focuses on a nuclear deal with Iran.
A well-armed North Korea may prompt the U.S. to adopt countermeasures, especially in missile defense. Adm. William Gortney, head of U.S. Northern Command, said this month that defense officials believe North Korea can now mount a nuclear warhead on an intercontinental ballistic missile called the KN-08. U.S. officials don’t believe the missile has been tested, but experts estimate it has a range of about 5,600 miles – within reach of the western edge of the continental U.S., including California.
An increase in North Korea’s nuclear arsenal feeds international concern about proliferation from a country that, U.S. officials said, previously exported nuclear technology to Syria and missile components to Iran, Yemen and Egypt.
In Washington, some Republican lawmakers said the pending White House deal with Iran could mirror the 1994 nuclear agreement the Clinton administration made with North Korea. The deal was intended to halt Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons capabilities, but instead, they allege, provided diplomatic cover to expand them. North Korea tested its first nuclear device in 2006.
“We saw how North Korea was able to game this whole process,” U.S. Rep. Ed Royce (R., Calif.), chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, said in an interview. “I wouldn’t be surprised if Iran had its hands on the same playbook.”
The pace of North Korea’s nuclear arms growth depends on its warhead designs and its uranium-enrichment capacity, Mr. Royce said: “We know they have one factory; we don’t know if they have another one.”
Recent estimates by U.S. experts range from 10 to 16 nuclear bombs today.
Mr. Royce said he met Chinese academics on a recent trip to Beijing and was struck by the concerns he heard about Pyongyang’s nuclear capabilities.
(The news briefs above are from wire reports and staff reports posted at Associated Press on May 3, London’s Daily Telegraph on April 23 and The Wall Street Journal on April 22.)
1. For each of the 3 countries, give the following information:
b) location/the countries that share its borders
c) the religious breakdown of the population
d) the type of government
e) the chief of state (and head of government if different) If monarch or dictator, since what date has he/she ruled? – include name of heir apparent for monarch
f) the population
Find the answers at the CIA World FactBook website. For each country, answers can be found under the “Geography” “People” and “Government” headings. NOTE: Some answers can still be found at the WorldFactBook (a, b and d) — however, we have determined that it is no longer always accurate for c, e and f. Instead, the most accurate for these answers is Wikipedia – search there for “Religion in ___” or “Politics of ____” for the leaders. Just do an internet search for “Population of ___.”]
NOTE to students: Before answering the questions below, read the info under “Background” and watch the videos under “Resources.”
2. For GERMANY:
a) list the who, what, where and when of the news item
b) Where was Dachau?
c) When was the Dachau concentration camp set up?
d) When was Dachau liberated?
e) Dachau was the first concentration camp set up by the Nazis. How many people were murdered or died from their horrific treatment there?
f) Abba Naor, a Lithuanian-born former Dachau prisoner who now lives in Israel, said that some Nazi SS commanders were “loving fathers who played with their children after they had driven thousands into the gas chambers. If you think the Nazis were inhuman, then you’re wrong. They were humans like you and me. And that is what is so terrible.” Read about the Holocaust at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum website.
Why is it so important to know about the Holocaust today?
3. For CHINA:
a) list the who, what, where and when of the news item
b) Human Genetics Alert (HGA) is a secular, independent public interest watchdog group, based in London. They inform people about human genetics issues, and put forward clear policies that serve the public interest. How did the director of HGA respond to the news from China?
c) Read some FAQ about techno-eugenics at the HGA website: hgalert.org. Differing from this group, advocates of gene editing say that it could eradicate devastating inherited disease. But others are worried that it crosses an ethical line, allowing children to be genetically engineered. What do you think: just because we can do something, should we? Explain your answer.
d) Dr. Francis Collins, director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health said modifying the DNA of embryos is a “line that should not be crossed.” He said there are big ethical questions and no compelling medical reason to do it. Ask a parent: why is genetic engineering wrong? Why are Christians so opposed to this research? Is having a good medical reason ok to do it despite the ethical reasons against it? Explain your answer.
4. For NORTH KOREA:
a) list the who, what, where and when of the news item
b) The Chinese estimates reflect growing concern in Beijing over North Korea’s weapons program and what they see as U.S. inaction while President Barack Obama focuses on a nuclear deal with Iran. What do you think of China’s concern? Is it legitimate? Should we take China’s warning seriously? Explain your answers.
GERMANY – Liberation of the Nazi concentration camps:
CHINA – U.S. government response to China’s report (from an April 30 BBC News report):
NORTH KOREA (from the WSJ article above)
Human Genetics Alert (HGA) is a secular, independent public interest watchdog group, based in London, UK. Since 1999, they have been committed to informing people about human genetics issues, and to putting forward clear policies that serve the public interest. Read some FAQ about techno-eugenics at the HGA website: hgalert.org