(by Lynn Vincent, WorldMag.com) – Former Oregon Teacher of the Year Barbara Lynn Murray, an English teacher at West Linn High School, likes to tell the story of how her literature students were discussing in class one day a modern work in which a character “washed his hands” of a situation.
“OK, what does that mean?” she asked the class. “What does it mean when you wash your hands of something?”
Student responses ran the gamut, she said. “I got everything from ‘Ivory! It’s 99.6 percent pure!’ to ‘They just want him to be really clean, right?'”
“OK, but there’s an allusion here,” Murray told the class. “Do any of you know what that is?”
There were a few kids who did. “Isn’t that like . . .,” one said hesitantly, “. . . Pontius Pilate?”
“Absolutely!” Murray said. “Who is he?”
Murray said the class went on to discuss the biblical text in which Pilate, though he knew Jesus to be an innocent man, ceded to the Jews’ calls to “Crucify him!” He then literally washed his hands before the crowd, symbolically cleansing himself of responsibility for Christ’s death even though he could have stopped it.
Murray brought the force of the allusion home to her students. “We talked about how when people wash their hands of something, they’re talking about not taking responsibility for something that they could have,” she said. The class also discussed the seriousness of the allusion: “You don’t use that as an author unless you want someone to see that this is a serious flaw in characters, that they’re not going to stand up for what’s right.”
The works of Shakespeare contain more than 1,600 Bible references. On one high-school advanced-placement literature exam, two-thirds of the allusions students need to know are biblical phrases. But Barbara Murray’s class is far from the only one in which only a handful of students would recognize a biblical metaphor. While 81 percent of English teachers in one local survey said that teaching about the Bible is important in literature classes, just one in 10 said they actually do so, according to the Bible Literacy Project (BLP), a nonpartisan, nonprofit group founded to encourage the teaching of the Bible as an academic subject in public schools.
Meanwhile, scholarly reviews of textbooks in public schools confirmed that virtually all religious references, including the Bible’s role in history, art, and literature, have been excised from the curriculum. Two groups, BLP and the National Council on Bible Curriculum in the Public Schools (NCBCPS), are trying to change that. Citing university English professors, those groups argue that Western literature is “steeped” in biblical references, and that lack of basic Bible literacy creates the need for arduous “decoding” of Scripture references.
The BLP last fall released The Bible and Its Influence, a high-school textbook designed to bridge the gap between ignorance of the Bible and unconstitutionally sectarian approaches to teaching it. As of Oct. 23, school districts in 28 states, Canada, and Taiwan had adopted the group’s new textbook for classroom use. BLP communications director Sheila Weber said she expects that number to grow since many districts indicated plans to adopt the book for use in 2007, pending release of a teacher’s edition this past August.
Prominent evangelicals such as Chuck Colson have praised the BLP text, but others have criticized it for its detached stance on the ultimate meaning of Scripture (“Meekness of Moses,” Sept. 16) and on crucial theological questions such as the reason for evil. BLP has responded with changes in the forthcoming second edition, removing some passages and enhancing others.
NCBCPS also revised its two-semester course, “The Bible in History and Literature,” in August 2005, partly in response to a Texas civil-liberties group’s complaint that the curriculum pushed a strictly evangelical view of Christianity. Today, the revised course is in use in 37 states and more than 350 districts nationwide, said NCBCPS board member Steve Crampton, who is also chief counsel for the American Family Association’s Center for Law and Policy. An additional 49 districts adopted the curriculum this year, Crampton saidâ€”but he would not name the districts, citing school officials’ wish not to become unnecessarily entangled in controversy.
Both the BLP and NCBCPS courses attempt to address concerns voiced by high-school and college instructors who say that “regardless of a person’s faith, an educated person needs to know about the Bible.” Reading English-language literature without basic Bible knowledge, said Brown University professor George P. Landow, is “like using a dictionary with one-third of the words removed.”
Copyright ©2006 WORLD Magazine, November 4th, 2006 issue. Reprinted here October 31st with permission from World Magazine. Visit the website at WorldMag.com.
NOTE TO STUDENTS: Before answering the questions, think about the following:
- An allusion is an implied or indirect reference to another literary work or event in history in literature. [from Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary]
- Two basic sources from which writers, especially poets, draw allusions and metaphors are the Bible and the ancient classical writings (mainly Greek and Roman). Knowledge of the characters and stories contained in the Bible and in the body of myths and legends will add appreciably to the enjoyment of good literature of all kinds. From the very beginning of the literary canon, writers have borrowed characters, plots, and themes from these sources.
1. How many biblical references do Shakespeare’s works contain?
2. a) What percent of high school English teachers surveyed believe that teaching about the Bible is important in literature classes?
b) What percent of English teachers said they actually teach about the Bible in their literature classes?
c) What do you think of these statistics?
d) Ask your English teacher whether it is important for students to have Biblical knowledge when studying literature.
3. a) Were you surprised to learn that reviews of textbooks in public schools confirmed that virtually all religious references, including the Bible’s role in history, art, and literature, have been removed from the curriculum?
b) Why do you think this has happened?
c) Do you think this affects students’ overall education? Explain your answer.
4. What do high school and college instructors say about the importance of Bible knowledge as explained in the last paragraph of the article?
5. a) Read the survey results from 39 professors at 34 universities around the country about the necessity of Bible knowledge for studying literature in the “Bible Literacy Report II: What University Professors Say Incoming Students Need to Know” at BibleLiteracy.org.
(NOTE: This document is in PDF format. You must have Adobe Reader to open this document.)
b) Read the responses of some professors to Question #3 on pages 22-24)
(Question 3 is: “What do you think about the following statement?: Regardless of a person’s faith, an educated person needs to know about the Bible.”)
c) Do the responses change your point of view about the necessity of Biblical literacy for all students? Explain your answer.
NOTE: The survey questions are listed on page 48 of the document. Survey results are listed on pages 49-52.
6. a) Read the list of classic books that contain biblical references listed at bibleliteracy.org/Site/PressRoom/press_fact.htm.
How many have you read?
b) Read the list of Biblical references contained in one preparation guide for the Advanced Placement Literature and Composition exam at bibleliteracy.org/Site/PressRoom/press_fact.htm.
How many do you know?
7. OPTIONAL: Read the results of an additional survey from the Bible Literacy Project: “What do American teens need to know and what do they know about the Bible?” found at BibleLiteracy.org.
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