(by Jack Nicas and Andy Pasztor, The Wall Street Journal) – The near-collision between a drone and a commercial jet over Florida has added urgency to efforts by regulators to impose new rules on the proliferation of unmanned aircraft.
Across the U.S., drones monitor crops, snap real-estate photographs, inspect roofs, shoot commercials and perform other tasks, according to people in the unmanned aircraft industry.
Pilots of those drones are defying seven-year-old restrictions on commercial unmanned aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), which has said the curbs are needed for public safety. But limited resources and legal complications have led to scattershot enforcement by the agency, emboldening even more drone operators.
The risks caused by the increase in unmanned flights were underscored by the agency’s revelation last week that a pilot of an American Airlines regional jet told officials in March that he nearly hit a drone about 2,300 feet above the ground while approaching a Tallahassee, Fla., airport.
The drone’s flying altitude was unusually high, since the FAA requires small types of unmanned aircraft to remain below 400 feet. Based on the description, the drone appeared to be a small model aircraft, but a senior FAA official warned that the drone could have done serious damage, such as if it were sucked into a jet engine.
Some proponents of unmanned aircraft worry that the near-collision could spark a public backlash and perhaps spur U.S. and state regulators to impose tougher restrictions than drone users [believe] are necessary.
The FAA plans to propose in November, several years later than initially projected, new rules on how small drones could be used legally for commercial purposes. It could take several more years for the rules to become final.
Jim Williams, head of the FAA’s unmanned-aircraft office, said last week that those rules will “ensure that risks are managed appropriately.” The issue “can’t get any more important to the FAA than it is today,” he said. “But unfortunately, the regulatory process is very slow and deliberative.”
An FAA spokeswoman said that to protect “people in the air and on the ground,” introducing drones into U.S. airspace “must take place incrementally and with the interest of safety first.”
Matt Waite, a University of Nebraska-Lincoln professor who runs a drone-journalism program that got a cease-and-desist letter from the FAA last year, said he is concerned that the “longer it takes to have the rules of the road in place, the more the technology advances and the cheaper it gets, the closer we get to some knucklehead doing something dumb and hurting someone.”
The FAA requires every non-recreational drone user in the U.S. to seek its approval. So far, the FAA has authorized only two commercial drones, both in Alaska.
Separately, the agency has fined two drone pilots, both for alleged reckless flying. In March, an administrative law judge overturned the first fine—a $10,000 penalty—ruling that the drone policy was a safety guideline and the agency had no legal authority to enforce it. The FAA is appealing.
“Fewer and fewer people seem deterred by threats,” said one federal official. “Nobody is asking the FAA how to proceed, so it’s turned into a modern version of the Wild West, where some people think anything is OK.”
The agency estimates there could be as many as 7,500 drones in U.S. skies within five years of the new rules. People in the unmanned aircraft industry say that estimate is far too low.
For example, Chris Anderson, chief executive of California drone maker 3D Robotics Inc. and the former editor of Wired magazine, sells about 2,000 autopilot systems a month to customers around the world who want to build their own drones.
DJI Innovations, a Chinese maker of recreational and commercial drones, sells as least 10 times as many drones, Mr. Anderson estimates. DJI declined to provide figures but said its sales have at least tripled each year since 2009.
The FAA’s unmanned-aircraft office is run by several dozen people, whose tasks include drafting rules and vetting permits for public entities such as police departments to fly drones in designated airspace. Inspectors check into reports of reckless flying or commercial use.
Some drone operators aren’t shy about flouting the current rules. Mike Fortin, president of an Orlando, Fla., drone company that films concerts and TV commercials, received an email from an FAA official in January telling him that his business was violating FAA policy.
“My response to the FAA was to [buzz] off,” he said. The FAA hasn’t followed up. If the agency sends a formal cease-and-desist letter, “I’d probably frame it, hang it up on the wall and keep going about my everyday business,” Mr. Fortin said. The FAA declined to comment on the incident.
In some cases, the FAA seems to be looking the other way. Mr. Williams, head of the FAA’s unmanned-aircraft office, said officials generally consider farmers who use drones to monitor crops as hobbyists. Hobbyists are traditionally allowed to use drones.
Companies might soon be allowed to apply for FAA certification for drones to be used in farming, filmmaking and inspections of power lines and certain parts of oil and gas plants, Mr. Williams said. Those uses aren’t allowed under the current restrictions.
Drone Dudes, of Los Angeles, has used drones for months to film commercials for companies such as Wal-Mart and Kia Motor Corp. “We haven’t heard a peep” from the FAA, said Eric Maloney, head of production at Drone Dudes.
Brian Emfinger, a photojournalist for TV station KATV in Little Rock, Ark., got a mixed response from the FAA after using a 2.2-pound drone last month to film the aftermath of tornadoes. The video has racked up about 2.4 million views on YouTube.
KATV news director Nick Genty said an FAA spokesman notified him that the station’s drone use was an FAA violation. Still, “they definitely didn’t tell us to stop,” Mr. Genty said, adding that KATV will continue to use drones for reporting.
The FAA said it regulates the use of drones, not how news organizations use footage.
Copyright 2014 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted here for educational purposes only. May not be reproduced on other websites without permission from The Wall Street Journal. Visit the website at wsj .com.
1. Define the following words as used in the article:
- proliferation (para. 1)
- proponents (para. 6)
- regulatory (para. 8)
- incrementally (para. 9)
2. List the uses people have for drones as mentioned in the article.
3. What recent incident highlighted the potential major problems with widespread drone use?
4. a) What is the purpose of the FAA? (do an internet search or see “Background” below the questions)
b) What steps is the FAA taking to address the potential problems caused by widespread drone use? How is the agency going about it?
c) Is the amount of time it will take the FAA to finalize rules on drone use a good or bad idea? Is the agency’s caution reassuring, is the process completely inefficient, or is this just something that can’t be helped? Explain your answer.
5. For which type of drone use does the FAA require individual users to gain approval?
6. What are some of the estimates for how many drones are sold/will be used within the next five years?
7. What does the FAA’s unmanned-aircraft office do?
8. Should there be air rules for drone use the way there are for commercial and private planes, commercial and private boats/ships and rules for the road? Explain your answer.
9. Should the FAA grant some/any/all organizations approval to use drones for non-military purposes? Explain your answer.
Consider some of the following before answering:
-Currently, recipients of special permits to use drones must fly in a certain geographic area outlined on their application. Who ensures that the users do so? Does this need to be monitored by a government agency? If so, should taxpayers pay for it?
-For what types of activities should drones be used?
-Should there be any limits on who gets approval? Only the police? All universities? News organizations? Wildlife/game wardens? Farmers? Hobbyists?
-Should there be limits on the number of people/organizations that get approval for drone use?
-Who at the FAA is giving certain applicants approval to use drones? This program is only as good as the integrity of 100% of users and FAA employees 100% of the time. The intended use of surveillance drones can be abused. Is it ok with you if drones are recording your actions in a park, or your backyard? What about celebrities?
-Do you think widespread drone use will affect air travel safety?
-Are common-sense laws/rules needed in this case for people who don’t have any common sense? or is the government over-regulating by getting involved in who can use drones, where and when?
-Should all non-military drone use be banned in the U.S.?
-Just because we have the technology to do something, does that mean we should use it?
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of American civil aviation. The website says the FAA is “Responsible for the safety of civil aviation.” The Federal Aviation Act of 1958 created the organization.
The FAA’s roles include:
- Regulating U.S. commercial space transportation
- Regulating air navigation facilities’ geometry and flight inspection standards
- Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology
- Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates
- Regulating civil aviation to promote safety, especially through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices
- Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft
- Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics
- Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation
Organizations: The FAA is divided into four “lines of business” (LOB). Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA.
- Airports (ARP) – plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations.
- Air Traffic Organization (ATO) – primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCT) and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities (TRACONs). See also Airway Operational Support.
- Aviation Safety (AVS) – Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots, airlines, and mechanics.
- Commercial Space Transportation (AST) – ensures protection of U.S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. (from faa.gov/about/mission/activities)
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