- If possible, print the article before reading.
- As you read, circle or underline the names of people, organizations and important facts.
- Use your own words to answer the questions in complete sentences.
(by Hadeel al-Shalchi and Ryan Lucas, StarTribune.com, Associated Press) TRIPOLI, Libya – Moammar Gadhafi’s snipers and tanks are terrorizing civilians in the coastal city of Misrata, a resident said, and the U.S. military warned Tuesday it was “considering all options” in response to dire conditions there that have left people [without power] and scrounging for food and rainwater.
Heavy anti-aircraft fire and loud explosions sounded in Tripoli after nightfall, possibly a new attack in the international air campaign that so far has focused on military targets. But conditions have deteriorated sharply in Misrata, the last major city in western Libya held by the rebel force trying to end Gadhafi’s four-decade rule. Residents of the city 125 miles southeast of Tripoli, say shelling and sniper attacks are unrelenting. A doctor said tanks opened fire on a peaceful protest on Monday.
“The number of dead are too many for our hospital to handle,” said the doctor, speaking on condition of anonymity for fear of reprisals if the city falls to Gadhafi’s troops. As for food, he said, “We share what we find and if we don’t find anything, which happens, we don’t know what to do.”
Neither the rebels nor Gadhafi’s forces are strong enough to hold Misrata or Ajdabiya, a key city in the east that is also a daily battleground. But the airstrikes and missiles that are [being used by]international forces may be of limited use.
“When there’s fighting in urban areas and combatants are mixing and mingling with civilians, the options are vastly reduced,” said Fred Abrahams, a special adviser at Human Rights Watch. “I can imagine the pressures and desires to protect civilians in Misrata and Ajdabiya are bumping up against the concerns about causing harms to the civilians you seek to protect.”
It is all but impossible to verify accounts within the two cities, which have limited communications and are now blocked to [human] rights monitors such as the International Committee for the Red Cross.
Most of eastern Libya is in rebel hands but the force – with more enthusiasm than discipline – has struggled to take advantage of the gains from the international air campaign, which appears to have hobbled Gadhafi’s air defenses and artillery and rescued the rebels from impending defeat.
Despite the U.S. fears for Misrata, the Obama administration is eager to relinquish leadership of the hurriedly assembled coalition. With NATO divided, France on Tuesday proposed the creation of a political steering committee to run the operation. If accepted, the committee’s job might be to bring order to what some observers has said seems a chaotic effort by countries with differing objectives.
Ajdabiya, a city of 140,000 that is the gateway to the east, has been under fire over for a week. Outside the city, a ragtag band of hundreds of fighters milled about on Tuesday, clutching mortars, grenades and assault rifles. Some wore khaki fatigues. One man sported a bright white studded belt.
Some men clambered up power lines in the rolling sand dunes of the desert, squinting as they tried to see Gadhafi’s forces inside the city. The group periodically came under artillery attacks, some men scattering and others holding their ground.
“Gadhafi is killing civilians inside Ajdabiya,” said Khaled Hamid, who said he had been in Gadhafi’s forces but defected to the rebels.
Ahmed Buseifi, 32, said he was in Libya’s special forces for nine years before joining the opposition. He said other rebellious special forces had entered Ajdabiya and Brega, another contested city, hoping to disrupt government supply lines. The airstrikes, he said, leveled the playing field.
“If not for the West we would not have been able to push forward,” he said.
Since the uprising began on Feb. 15, the opposition has been made up of disparate groups even as it took control of the entire east of the country. Only a few of the army units that defected have actually joined in the fighting, as officers try to coordinate a force with often antiquated, limited equipment.
In Misrata, the doctor said rebel fighters were vastly outgunned.
“The fighters are using primitive tools like swords, sticks and anything they get from the Gadhafi mercenaries,” he said.
Mokhtar Ali, a Libyan dissident in exile who is still in touch which his family in Misrata, said [Gadhafi’s] rooftop snipers target anyone on the street, and residents trapped inside have no idea who has been killed.
“People live in total darkness in terms of communications and electricity,” Ali said. “Residents live on canned food and rainwater tanks.”
U.S. Navy Adm. Samuel J. Locklear said intelligence confirmed that Gadhafi’s forces were attacking civilians in Misrata, Libya’s third-largest city, and said the international coalition was “considering all options” there. He did not elaborate, but Misrata is one of the cities that President Barack Obama has demanded that Gadhafi forces evacuate.
Airstrikes overnight into Tuesday hit a military port in Tripoli, destroying equipment warehouses and trucks loaded with rocket launchers. Col. Abdel-Baset Ali, operations officer in the port, said the strikes caused millions of dollars in losses, but no human casualties
But while the airstrikes can stop Gadhafi’s troops from attacking rebel cities – in line with the U.N. mandate to protect civilians – the United States has so far been reluctant to go beyond that. The Libyan leader was a target of American air attacks in 1986.
U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates and others said the U.S. military’s role will lessen in coming days as other countries take on more missions and the need declines for large-scale offensive action.
Two dozen more Tomahawk cruise missiles were launched from U.S. and British submarines, a defense official said earlier in the day. Locklear, the on-scene commander, didn’t give details but confirmed that brought to 161 the number of Tomahawk strikes aimed at disabling Libyan command and control facilities, air defenses and other targets since the operation started Saturday.
Locklear said the additional strikes had expanded the area covered by the no-fly zone.
In a joint statement to Gadhafi late Friday, the United States, Britain and France called on him to end his troops’ advance toward Benghazi and pull them out of the cities of Misrata, Ajdabiya and Zawiya.
Locklear said the coalition is “considering all options” but didn’t elaborate. Asked if international forces were stepping up strikes on Gadhafi ground troops, Locklear said that as the “capability of the coalition” grows, it will be able to do more missions aimed at ground troops who are not complying with the U.N. resolution to protect those seeking Gadhafi’s ouster.
Lucas reported from Ajdabiya, Libya. Associated Press writers Maggie Michael in Cairo; Robert Burns and Pauline Jelinek in Washington and David Rising in Berlin contributed to this report.
Reprinted here for educational purposes only. May not be reproduced on other websites without permission from The Minneapolis Star Tribune. Visit the website at StarTribune.com.
1. What are conditions like for Libyans in the city of Misrata? Be specific.
2. What have international air strikes against Gadhafi’s forces accomplished?
3. What is the Obama administration’s plan for U.S. involvement in Libya?
4. How are the rebels/opposition described by the reporters who wrote this article?
5. How do the rebels view Western military assistance?
6. What did the U.S., Britain and France call on Gadhafi to do in a joint statement issued Friday?
7. Ask a parent if he/she supports U.S. involvement in Libya.
b) The question has been raised about why the president chose to step in to help the citizens of Libya who are being harmed by their leader, but has not done so for the helpless citizens of Darfur in Sudan, or the opponents of dictator Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. Ask a parent if he/she knows enough about these other countries to explain this, or just to make an educated guess and discuss his/her answer with you.
Free Answers — Sign-up here to receive a daily email with answers.
- The population of Libya is 6,461,454.
- Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast.
- More than half the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi.
- Thirty-three percent of the population is estimated to be under age 15.
- The official name of Libya is: Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. [NOTE: “Jamahiriya” is a term Qadhafi coined and which he defines as a “state of the masses” governed by the populace through local councils.]
- In practice, Libya is an authoritarian state.
- Libya’s political system is in theory based on the political philosophy in Qadhafi’s Green Book, which combines socialist and Islamic theories and rejects parliamentary democracy and political parties.
- In reality, Qadhafi exercises near total control over major government decisions. (from state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5425.htm)
REPORT ON LIBYA FROM FREEDOM HOUSE (freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2010)
- Libya is not an electoral democracy.
- Political parties have been illegal for over 35 years, and the government strictly monitors political activity.
- Organizing or joining anything akin to a political party is punishable by long prison terms and even the death sentence.
- Many Libyan opposition movements and figures operate outside the country.
- Corruption is pervasive in both the private sector and the government in Libya, which was ranked 130 out of 180 countries surveyed in Transparency International’s 2009 Corruption Perceptions Index.
- There is no independent press.
- State-owned media largely operate as mouthpieces for the authorities, and journalists work in a climate of fear and self-censorship. Those who displease the regime face harassment or imprisonment on trumped-up charges.
- The government controls the country’s only internet service provider. Internet usage stood at only 4.7 percent in 2008 due to poor telecommunications infrastructure.
- Nearly all Libyans are Muslim. The government closely monitors mosques for Islamist activity, and there have been unconfirmed reports of Islamist militant groups allied to Al-Qaeda operating against the government.
- The government does not uphold freedom of assembly. Those demonstrations that are allowed to take place are typically meant to support the aims of the regime.
- In February 2007, the authorities arrested 13 men for planning a peaceful demonstration in Tripoli to commemorate clashes between security forces and demonstrators the previous year. All were reportedly released by March 2009.
- The People’s Court, infamous for punishing political dissidents, was abolished in 2005, but the judicial authority has since created the State Security Court, which carries out a similar function.
- The judiciary as a whole remains subservient to the political leadership and regularly penalizes political dissent.
- Human Rights Watch, citing Libya’s secretary of justice, reported in December 2009 that 500 political prisoners remained in custody despite having been acquitted of all charges or served their full prison sentences. The head of internal security, Colonel Al-Tohamy Khaled, defended the continued detention of such prisoners by arguing that they were undergoing mandatory rehabilitation programs designed to rid them of extremist beliefs. He reportedly criticized the judges who had ordered the prisoners’ release, saying they did not understand the threat the inmates posed.
- A large number of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa work in Libya or pass through in attempts to reach Europe. The Nigerian government alleged that Libya executed dozens of Nigerians in 2009 and intended to execute more than 200 additional Nigerian nationals for simple immigration violations.
- Women enjoy many of the same legal protections as men, but certain laws and social norms perpetuate discrimination, particularly in areas such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Women who have been cast out by their families are particularly vulnerable. The government considers such women wayward and can hold them indefinitely in “social rehabilitation” facilities, which are de facto prisons. Women are seriously underrepresented in Libya’s political system, with only 36 gaining seats in March 2009 indirect elections for the 468-member General People’s Congress.
For a map of Libya, go to worldatlas.com.
Read about Libya at the U.S. State Department website state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5425.htm.
Read a previous article on Libya at studentnewsdaily.com/daily-news-article/libyan-fighter-jets-attack-protesters-in-tripoli.